Ten Courses of Action
"And how are there three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?
Here someone kills living beings: he is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, and merciless to all living beings.
He takes what is not given: he takes by way of theft another's chattels and property in the village or in the forest.
He commits sexual misconduct: he has intercourse with such (women) as are protected by their mother, father, (mother and father), brother, sister,or relatives, who have a husband, who are protected by law, and also with who are already engaged.
That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.
"And how are there four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?
Here someone speaks falsehood: when summoned to a court or to a meeting, or to his relatives' presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family's presence, and questioned as a witness thus, 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, he says 'I know,' or knowing, he says 'I do not know,' not seeing, he says 'I see,' or seeing, he says 'I do not see'; in full awareness he speaks falsehood for his own ends or for another's ends or for some trifling worldly end.
He speaks maliciously: he repeats elsewhere what he has heard here for the purpose of causing division from these, or he repeats to these what he has heard elsewhere for the purpose of causing division from those, and he thus divides the united, creates divisions, , enjoys discord, rejoices in discord, delights in discord, he is a speaker of words that create discord.
He speaks harshly: he utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger and unconducive to concentration.
He engages in idle chatter: as one who tells that which is unseasonable, that which is not fact, that which is not good, that which is not the Dhamma, that which is not the Discipline, and he speaks out of season speech not worth recording, which is unreasoned, inmmoderate, and unbeneficial.
That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.
"And how are there three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?
Here someone is covetous: he covets another's chattels and property thus: 'Oh, that what is another's were mine!'
Or he has a mind of ill-will, and intentions of hate thus: 'May these beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be annihilated!'
Or he has wrong view, distorted vision, thus: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed, no fruit and ripening of good and bad kammas, no this world, no other world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously (born) beings,no good and virtuous monks and brahmans that have themselves realized by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.'
That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.
MN 41 Saleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmans of Sala
Kathañca gahapatayo tividhaṃ kāyena adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti?
Idha gahapatayo ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti luddo lohitapāṇī hatapahate niviṭṭho adayāpanno pāṇabhūtesu.
Adinnādāyī kho pana hoti, yaṃ taṃ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṃ gāmagataṃ vā araññagataṃ vā adinnaṃ theyyasaṅkhātaṃ ādātā hoti.
Kāmesu micchācārī kho pana hoti, yā tā māturakkhitā piturakkhitā mātāpiturakkhitā bhāturakkhitā bhaginirakkhitā ñātirakkhitā gottarakkhitā dhammarakkhitāsassāmikā saparidaṇḍā, antamaso mālāguṇaparikkhittāpi, tathārūpāsu cārittaṃ āpajjitā hoti.
Evaṃ kho gahapatayo tividhaṃ kāyena adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti.
Kathañca gahapatayo catubbidhaṃ vācāya adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti?
Idha gahapatayo ekacco musāvādī hoti sabhāgato vā parisagato vā ñātimajjhagato vā pūgamajjhagato vā abhinīto sakkhipuṭṭho: 'ehambho purisa yaṃ jānāsi taṃ vadehī'ti. So ajānaṃ vā āha jānāmīti, jānaṃ vā āha na jānāmīti, apassaṃ vā āha passāmīti, passaṃ vā āha na passāmīti. Iti attahetu vā parahetu vā āmisa kiñcikkhahetu vā sampajānamusā bhāsitā hoti.
Pisuṇāvāco kho pana hoti: ito sutvā amutra akkhātā imesaṃ bhedāya, amutra vā sutvā imesaṃ akkhātā amūsaṃ bhedāya. Iti samaggānaṃ vā bhettā bhinnānaṃ vā anuppadātā, vaggārāmo vaggarato vagganandī vaggakaraṇiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti.
Pharusāvāco kho pana hoti. Yā sā vācā aṇḍakā kakkasā parakaṭukā parābhisajjanī kodhasāmantā asamādhisaṃvattanikā, tathārūpiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti.
Samphappalāpi kho pana hoti: akālavādī abhūtavādī anatthavādī adhammavādī avinayavādī anidhānavatiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā akālena anapadesaṃ apariyantavatiṃ anatthasaṃhitaṃ.
Evaṃ kho gahapatayo catubbidhaṃ vācāya adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti.
Kathañca gahapatayo tividhaṃ manasā adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti?
Idha gahapatayo ekacco abhijjhālu hoti: yaṃ taṃ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṃ taṃ abhijjhitā hoti. 'Aho vata yaṃ parassa taṃ mama assā'ti.
Byāpannacitto kho pana hoti paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo: ime sattā haññantu vā vajjhantu vā ucchijjantu vā vinassantu vā mā vā ahesuṃ iti vā'ti.
Micchādiṭṭhi kho pana hoti viparītadassano: natthi dinnaṃ, natthi yiṭṭhaṃ, natthi hutaṃ, natthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, natthi ayaṃ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammā paṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī'ti.
Evaṃ kho gahapatayo tividhaṃ manasā adhammacariyā visamacariyā hoti.
Kathañ-ca = and how
gahapatayo (voc. pl.)= householders
pāṇātipātī (nom. sg.)= killer
lohitapāṇī (nom. sg.)= blood-handed
ludda = fierce
tividhaṃ = in three ways
kāyena (inst. sg.) = by the body
adhammacariyā (nom. sg.) = not in accordance with the dhamma
visamacariyā (nom. sg.) = of wrong conduct
hoti = is
ekacco = one certain person
lohitapāṇī = bloody-handed
hatapahate (loc. sg.) = blows & violence
niviṭṭho (pp. of nivisati) = settled, fixed
adayāpanno = merciless
pāṇabhūtesu. (loc. pl.) = to all living beings
Adinnādāyī = a taker of what is not given
parassa (gen. sg.) = another's
paravitt-ūpakaraṇaṃ (acc. sg.) = chattels and property
gāma-gataṃ = in the village
vā = or
arañña-gataṃ = in the forest (in wilderness)
adinnaṃ = what is not given
theyya-saṅkhātaṃ (adv.) = by way of theft
ādātā (nom. sg.)= a taker
Kāmesu (loc. sg.)= in sensual pleasures
micchācārī (nom. sg.) = s.o who has wrong conduct
mātu-rakkhitā = protected by the mother
pitu-rakkhitā = protected by the father
Bhātu = brother
bhagini = sister
ñāti = relatives
gotta =lineage, good name
dhamma = penalty
sassāmikā (nom. sg.)= having a husband, married
saparidaṇḍā (nom. sg.) = a certain class of women
antamaso (adv.) = even
mālāguṇa-parikkhitta = with garlands thrown round
tathārūpāsu (loc. pl.) = with such like (women [in this case])
cārittaṃ āpajjitā = s.o who mix
Musavâdî (nom. sg.)= a speaker of falsehood
Sabhâ-gato = to a court
Parisa-gato =to a meeting
vā ñāti-majjha-gato = to his relatives’ presence
pūga-majjha-gato = to his guild
abhinīta (pp. of abhi-neti) = summoned
sakkhi-puṭṭha = asked as a witness
ehambho purisa (voc. sg.)= good man
yaṃ jānāsi taṃ vadehi = say what you know
So ajānaṃ vā āha jānāmīti =not knowing he says I know
jānaṃ vā āha na jānāmīti= knowing he says I do not know
apassaṃ vā āha passāmīti = not seeing he says I see
passaṃ vā āha na passāmīti = seeing he says I do not see
atta-hetu = for his own end
para-hetu = for another’s end
āmisa kiñcikkha-hetu = for any other trifling end
sampajānamusā = with full awareness
bhāsitā (nom. sg.) = he speaks (he is a speaker)
Pisuṇāvāco kho pana hoti= he speaks maliciously
ito sutvā = what is heard there
amutra Akkhātā= repeater elsewhere
imesaṃ bhedāya (dat. sg.)= for the purpose of causing division from these
amutra vā sutvā = what is heard there
amūsaṃ akkhātā = repeater
Iti samaggānaṃ vā bhettā =he is a diviser of the united
bhinnānaṃ vā anuppadātā = a creator of divisions
Vaggā-rāmo = enjoying discord
vagga-rato = rejoicing in discord
vagga-nandī = delighting in discord
vagga-karaṇiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti = is a speaker of words that create discord
Pharusāvāco kho pana hoti = he speaks harshly
Yā sā vācā aṇḍakā kakkasā
parakaṭukā= hurtful to others
parābhisajjanī= censorous of others
kodha-sāmantā = bordering on anger
asamādhi-saṃvattanikā = unconstructive for concentration
tathārūpiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti. = he is a gossip (he engages in idle chatter)
Samphappalāpi kho pana hoti=
akāla-vādī as one who speaks what is unreasonable
abhūta-vādī = that which is not fact
anattha-vādī = that which is not good,
adhamma-vādī = that which is not the Dhamma
avinaya-vādī = that which is not the Discipline,
anidhānavatiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā =a speaker of speech not worth recording
akālena = out of season
anapadesaṃ = unreasoned
apariyantavatiṃ = indefinite
anatthasaṃhitaṃ. = unconnected with good
Parassa (gen. sg.) = another’s
Paravittu-upakaranam (acc. Sg.) = chattels and property
Abhijjhitâ = coveter
vata yaṃ parassa= that what is another’s
taṃ mama assā = that it be mine
Byāpanna-citto kho pana hoti = or he has a mind of ill will
hoti paduṭṭha-mana-saṅkappo =intention with an ill-will mind
ime sattā = these beings
haññantu = may they be slain
vajjhantu = may they be slaughtered
ucchijjantu = may they be cut off,
vinassantu = may they perish
mā ahesuṃ = may they be annihiladed
Micchādiṭṭhi kho pana hoti = he has wrong view
Viparīta-dassano = one with distorted vision
natthi dinnaṃ,= 'There is nothing given
natthi yiṭṭhaṃ = nothing offered
natthi hutaṃ, = nothing sacrificed
kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko = no fruit and ripening of good and bad kammas
natthi ayaṃ loko = no this world,
natthi paro loko, no other world
natthi mātā = no mother
natthi pitā= no father
opapātikā = spontaneously (born)
samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā (nom. pl.) = good brahmins and monks
paṭipannā [pp. of paṭipajjati] = following
ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ = this world and the other world
sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā = have themselves realized by direct knowledge
pavedenti= they declare